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In anti-evolutionist literature it is often implied that the presence of randomness in natural processes such as random variation or natural (unguided) selection completely displaces the idea of goals, purposes or intentions. But that is simply not the case. Although the idea that each individual event in evolutionary history is purposefully intended or in conformity to some predetermined plan may have to be set aside, that does not at all eliminate the possibility that the evolutionary process as a whole might well be serving some comprehensive purpose. As an illustration, suppose there were a completely honest gambling casino in which pure randomness characterized every roll of the dice, every spin of the wheel, every turn of the card, etc. Nonetheless, the casino accomplishes its purpose of bringing a handsome profit to the bank at the end of each day. In fact, the owners of the casino depend on authentic randomness in their computation of payout rates in order to accomplish their goal of making a profit. Randomness at one level does not exclude purpose at another. Randomness can be purposefully employed.

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