a technical introduction see Misner, Kip S. Thorne and John Archibald Wheeler,
Gravitation, Ch. 34, esp. 34.4, 34.6; see also R. Penrose,
"Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities," Phys.
Rev. Lett. 14 (1965): 57-59, S. W. Hawking and R. Penrose, "The Singularities of
Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology," Proc. R. Soc. London A 314
(1969): 529-48; Stephen Hawking and George F. R. Ellis, The Large
Scale Structure of Space-Time, Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical
Physics Series (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973). These theorems
only apply if certain reasonable conditions hold for the model, namely
ρ+3p/c>0. These conditions are
violated in many inflationary models (see below).
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