is a concept that refers to the division of any given area of reality into two
contrasting and, possibly, conflicting areas. Some examples include: mind and
matter, spirit and flesh and heaven and earth.
its classic formulation, in the work of Rene Descartes, mental phenomena are
taken as, in some respect, non-physical. The mind for Descartes is a
non-physical substance, because minds have no spatial properties and physical
reality is essentially extended in space, minds are wholly non-physical. This
can be contrasted to body, which is physical and does have extension in
space. In this way the reality of the human person has been divided into two
by: Richard P Whaite
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