A wide-reaching term, designating views in which the individual elements of a
system are determined by their relations to all other elements of that system.
Being highly relational, holistic theories do not see the sum of the parts as
adding up to the whole. In addition to the individual parts of a system, there
are "emergent," or "arising," properties that add to or
transform the individual parts. As such, holistic theories claim that no element
of a system can exist apart from the system in which it is a part. Holistic
theories can be found in philosophical, religious, social, or scientific
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